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Review of rural sanitation approaches : final report

This report was commissioned by Plan International USA, WaterAid and UNICEF to review and characterize rural sanitation approaches. It maps out the predominant rural sanitation approaches, and analyses and compares their core elements, attributes and activities. A rapid literature review was conducted, supported by key informant interviews with rural sanitation experts. The predominant approaches were identified and grouped based on three primary focus areas: (1) promoting sanitation and hygiene behaviour change through community mobilisation methods; (2) developing or strengthening the market and supply-chain for sanitation technologies; and (3) providing financing mechanisms to improve sanitation supply and demand. An activity-based framework was then developed to compare programming across different approaches. Activities typically conducted in rural sanitation projects were grouped into seven categories: planning and training; formative assessments; community interaction; supply chain networks; technology and construction; financing; and monitoring and evaluation. Based on an analysis of similarities, differences, strengths, and weaknesses of the core attributes and activities, five main considerations for compatibility are proposed: (1) there are fundamental differences in philosophy across approaches regarding perception of the individual, household, or community as a "beneficiary" or as a "customer"; (2) there are basic differences in the population and targets, but these should not affect compatibility across approaches, as outcome measures can and should be combined to achieve end goals; (3) planning and training activities can be coordinated when combining or sequencing demand and supply-related activities across approaches; (4) differences in behaviour change techniques and drivers will influence the compatibility and adaptation of specific approaches; and (5) practitioners can capitalise on supply and demand-based strengths of different approaches. The report concludes that identifying appropriate sets of activities rather than "approaches" can lead to the development of a more holistic strategy, which considers the rural sanitation "system" as a whole.

Title Review of rural sanitation approaches : final report
Publication TypeLiterature Review
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsVenkataramanan, V.
Paginationiv, 29 p. : 1 fig., 5 tab.
Date Published08/2017
PublisherThe Water Institute at UNC
Place Published Chapel Hill, NC, USA
Publication LanguageEnglish
Abstract

This report was commissioned by Plan International USA, WaterAid and UNICEF to review and characterize rural sanitation approaches. It maps out the predominant rural sanitation approaches, and analyses and compares their core elements, attributes and activities. A rapid literature review was conducted, supported by key informant interviews with rural sanitation experts. The predominant approaches were identified and grouped based on three primary focus areas: (1) promoting sanitation and hygiene behaviour change through community mobilisation methods; (2) developing or strengthening the market and supply-chain for sanitation technologies; and (3) providing financing mechanisms to improve sanitation supply and demand. An activity-based framework was then developed to compare programming across different approaches. Activities typically conducted in rural sanitation projects were grouped into seven categories: planning and training; formative assessments; community interaction; supply chain networks; technology and construction; financing; and monitoring and evaluation. Based on an analysis of similarities, differences, strengths, and weaknesses of the core attributes and activities, five main considerations for compatibility are proposed: (1) there are fundamental differences in philosophy across approaches regarding perception of the individual, household, or community as a "beneficiary" or as a "customer"; (2) there are basic differences in the population and targets, but these should not affect compatibility across approaches, as outcome measures can and should be combined to achieve end goals; (3) planning and training activities can be coordinated when combining or sequencing demand and supply-related activities across approaches; (4) differences in behaviour change techniques and drivers will influence the compatibility and adaptation of specific approaches; and (5) practitioners can capitalise on supply and demand-based strengths of different approaches. The report concludes that identifying appropriate sets of activities rather than "approaches" can lead to the development of a more holistic strategy, which considers the rural sanitation "system" as a whole.

Notes

Includes 38 ref.

URLhttps://washmatters.wateraid.org/sites/g/files/jkxoof256/files/review-of-rural-sanitation-approaches---background-report.pdf
Citation Key86485